Annex A - Group Research Propsal

Group Project Proposal (Investigation)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Christopher, Khoo Bo Si, Nigel Tan, Zhu Zhan Yan
Class: S2-02
Group Reference: C    

1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[    X    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
Does the mass of an object affects the speed of descend?

[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[           ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modelling of the cooling curve of naphthalene 

[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

[           ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households.  


2.    Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:

Title: Investigation on the relationship between the mass of a object and the rate of decent

  Problem being addressed: To find ways of increasing Scuba Diving Rate of Descend (Problem)
To prove that the mass of an object affects the speed of descend (aim)
Hypothesis: An object with more mass will descend faster the object with lower mass.

1. The independent variable is mass of capsule.
2. The Dependent Variable is time to descend a certain Depth

 The constants are:
1. Surface area of capsule.
2. Size of capsule.
3. Density of liquid for the capsule to dive.
4.Volume of liquid for the capsule to dive.
5.Shape of capsule


B.    Goals 

To prove that the mass of an object affects the speed of descend in water.

C.    Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)






Specify Requirements
Items needed:
1.  1 High Frame Rate Camera
2.  3 Capsules
3.  1L Water
4.  1 Measuring Cylinder 
5.  250g of semi-fine gravel


Alternative Solutions

Design 1  
Attach a weight to parachutes of different surface area and release it from a fixed height


Design 2

Use a video camera to film the capsule as we drop it. Use imovie to slow it down to see the time which we drop from the top and the time it hit the bottom.



Design 3
same idea as idea 1 but with the changing of the mass of the weight instead of changing surface area of parachute.



Best solution and reason
Use a video camera to film the capsule as we drop it. Use the iMovie app application to slow it down to see the time which we drop from the top and the time it hit the bottom.This improve accuracy and reduces human error.



Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
1.Fill the container with water 2cm form the brim







2.Seal the capsules of any holes and make sure when submerged, is water proof.

3.Ready the cameras for recording.


4.Put 10g of Gravel inside the capsule














5.Start recording with the cameras



6. Gently release the capsule where it is just touching the water





7.Stop recording

8.Record Timing by taking timing from Camera

9.Take 2 more readings by repeating steps 3 to 9 twice

10.Repeat steps 3 to 9 with 2g more gravel 30 times.


Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

1.We have to drop the capsule gently as to not wet the cameras
2.Do not let any electrical appliances near the water(except camera)
3.We should pour gravel using a funnel
4.We should make sure that the Capsule is water proof

Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyse the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses.



We will put the result into a table and make comparison between results.

If the capsules with smaller mass falls slower than the the capsule with higher mass, our hypothesis is correct. If not, the hypothesis is wrong.


D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.


1.Does mass affect the speed of descend acting towards the paper as it has a larger surface area.However mass will not affect the rate of falling objects if gravity is the only force that is acting on it an example of this would be a bullet.This means that mass does not affect the speed of descend.

2.According to newton’s second law F=ma,
If both objects are accelerating at the same rate,then the force acting on objects of different mass is different from each other.F is proportional to m the greater the mass the greater the force of gravity is acting on the object, according to Newton’s second law.


3.All objects fall with an acceleration of 9.8m/s and this is the acceleration of gravity.The reason why the objects free fall(they are falling only on the influence of gravity)at the same rate of acceleration regardless of their mass is because the direct effect of greater force on the object with greater mass is offset by the inverse effect of the greater mass of the object; and so each object accelerates at the same rate.The ratio of force to mass is the same for all objects on earth,(Fnet/m).This ratio is commonly known as gravitational field strength.It is a property of the location of earth’s gravitational field and is not a property of anything else so all the object will experience that amount of force.

4.Gravity is the force that pulls objects to the ground.If gravity did not exist then everything will be floating instead of remaining on the floor.The mass does not affect the speed of the object descend,but it affects how much gravity that acts on it.Also every object has a acceleration of 9/8m/s no matter their matter or shape.Besides without gravity none of these forces will exist.

5.If the object is in free fall,the mass of the object does not matter as the increased inertia or resistance to change of the object caused by its increased mass of the object is balanced by the also increased force gravity on this mass therefore mass does not affect the speed of which the object is falling.

6.Objects with more mass will have a greater gravitational pull but is balanced  by the energy needed to accelerate that greater mass.An example would be a bowling ball and a large marble,the bowling ball will take more force to accelerate at the same speed,so even though there is more gravity pulling the object with more mass but acceleration remains the same, as it is harder to move.That is also why in a total vacuum all objects for at the same time as gravity is the only force acting in the vacuum.

7.In water object with more mass the mass will not be affected by mass but instead by volume.Under water, you also need to consider the force from the buoyancy of the water, which does not depend on the mass of the object, but on its volume.

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